The words evidence-based are used to describe lots of things in medicine, healthcare and beyond. Evidence-based medicine (EBM), evidence-based practice, evidence-based policy, and, in a different part of society, evidence-based social work and evidence-based education.
The underlying principals are the same. The concept is about making sure that when decisions are made they are made on the basis of the most up-to-date, solid, reliable, scientific evidence. In the case of medicine or health care, these are the decisions about the care of individual patients.